This is a list of rediscovered films that, once thought lost, have since been discovered in film archives or private collections. See also:

Silent eraEdit

Many films of the silent era have been lost.[1]


Year Film Director Cast Notes Ref
1896 Défense d’afficher Georges Méliès Georges Méliès The film was recovered in 2004. [2]
1897 X-Rays George Albert Smith
1899 Cléopâtre Georges Méliès Georges Méliès, Jeanne d'Alcy Was thought to be lost until a copy surfaced in 2005 in Paris.


Year Film Director Cast Notes Ref
1902 Le Voyage dans la Lune Georges Méliès Georges Méliès, Jeanne d'Alcy Animated hand-colored ending discovered in a barn in France.
1909 El Hotel eléctrico Segundo de Chomón Segundo de Chomón, Julienne Mathieu
1909 La Tosca André Calmettes, Charles Le Bargy Sarah Bernhardt
1909 Jephtah’s Daughter: A Biblical Tragedy


Year Film Director Cast Notes Ref
1910 Frankenstein J. Searle Dawley Charles Ogle A print was bought by a film collector in the 1950s, who was not aware of its rarity until decades later. [3]
1911 A Manly Man Thomas H. Ince
1911 At the Duke's Command Thomas H. Ince
1911 The Colleen Bawn
1911 Karađorđe Ilija Stanojević-Čiča The first Serbian feature film, thought lost since 1928. Material from this movie was found in Austrian Film Archives in 2003.
1911 The Mirror Thomas H. Ince
1911 Maid or Man Thomas H. Ince
1911 The Sultan's Garden Thomas H. Ince
1912 Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde Lucius Henderson James Cruze
1912 A Fool and His Money Alice Guy-Blaché
1912 In Nacht Und Eis Mime Misu The first Titanic movie, was presumed lost around 1914 but found in a private film library in Germany in 1998.
1912 Under Two Flags
1912 Richard III André Calmettes, James Keane Robert Gemp, Frederick Warde The first known full-length William Shakespeare film. Found in a projectionist's collection in 1996. [4]
1913 Poor Jake's Demise Allen Curtis Lon Chaney, Sr., Louise Fazenda Chaney's first credited role. Was discovered in 2007 among several hundred other reels of film in an English collection.
1913 The Prisoner of Zenda Edwin S. Porter
1913 When Lincoln Paid Francis Ford Recovered in 2006.
1914 The Active Life of Dolly of the Dailies Walter Edwin Mary Fuller, Yale Boss Discovered in 2009 in the New Zealand Film Archive [5]
1914 Won in a Closet Mabel Normand Mabel Normand Discovered in 2009 in the New Zealand Film Archive [5]
1914 Cruel, Cruel Love George Nichols Charlie Chaplin
Minta Durfee
Complete nitrate copy found in South America
1914 Der Hund von Baskerville (The Hound of the Baskervilles) Rudolf Meinert
1914 Salomy Jane William Nigh, Lucius Henderson Beatriz Michelena, House Peters Complete nitrate copy found in Australia in 1996. [6]
1914 The Girl Stage Driver Norbert A. Myles, Edna Payne, Will E. Sheerer Webster Cullison An incomplete 35mm positive print was discovered in 2009 in the New Zealand Film Archive. [7][8]
1914 A Thief Catcher Charlie Chaplin A print was discovered in 2010 at a Michigan antique sale. [9]
1914 The Stain Frank Powell Edward José, Theda Bara A print of the film was discovered in Australia in the 1990s. [10]
1915 Double Trouble William Christy Cabanne
1915 His Lordship's Dilemma W.C. Fields Found in a Belgian film archive.
1915 Peculiar Patients' Pranks Hal Roach Harold Lloyd Found in Australia's National Film and Sound Archive.
1915 Youth Harry Handworth Film exists in the British Film Institute archive
1916 East Lynne Bertram Bracken Theda Bara One of Bara's four surviving films. [11]
1916 Mysteriet natten till den 25:e Georg af Klercker
1916 Als ich tot war Ernst Lubitsch Found in 1994 in a Slovenian archive.
1916 Purity Rae Berger Film survives in an archive in France.
1916 Snow White Inspired Walt Disney to make films.
1916 Gretchen the Greenhorn Chester M. Franklin, Sidney Franklin Dorothy Gish Recovered in 1991.
1916 Zepped Charlie Chaplin A propaganda short film, a copy was found in 2009, and a second in 2011.
1917 Beatrice Fairfax Olive Thomas All but one episode of this series survives in the Library of Congress archive.
1917 Bucking Broadway John Ford Found in 2002 in a French archive.
1917 His Wedding Night Roscoe Arbuckle
1917 The Image Maker Eugene Moore Film survives in a private collection.
1917 Max and His Taxi
1917 Max Comes Across
1917 Max Wants a Divorce
1917 A Reckless Romeo Roscoe Arbuckle Roscoe Arbuckle Found in an unmarked canister at the Norwegian Film Institute in 1998, alongside The Cook
1917 The Rough House Roscoe Arbuckle, Buster Keaton
1918 The Cook Roscoe Arbuckle Roscoe Arbuckle, Buster Keaton Found in an unmarked canister at the Norwegian Film Institute in 1998, alongside A Reckless Romeo
1918 Hell Bent John Ford A print exists in the Czechoslovak Film Archive [12]
1918 Mr. Fix-It Allan Dwan Douglas Fairbanks restored by George Eastman House and shown at San Francisco Silent Film Festival in July 2011
1918 Oh Baby!
1919 Back Stage Roscoe Arbuckle
1919 Scarlet Days D. W. Griffith
1919 The Spiders Fritz Lang Restored in 1978 from a newly-discovered original print
1919 The Valley of the Giants James Cruze Wallace Reid Found in Russian state archives. Digital copy turned over to the Library of Congress in 2010. [13]
1919 When Bearcat Went Dry Oliver L. Sellers Lon Chaney, Sr. Found in a projectionist's collection.
1919 The Wicked Darling Tod Browning Lon Chaney, Sr. A copy was found in Europe in the 1990s, and now resides in the Nederlands Filmmuseum. [14]
1919 You're Fired James Cruze Wallace Reid Found in Russian state archives. Digital copy turned over to the Library of Congress in 2010. [13]
1919 The Witness for the Defense George Fitzmaurice Elsie Ferguson Print rediscovered in Gosfilmofond. Screened at Univ. of North Dakota. Ferguson's only surviving silent film.
1919 Different from the Others Richard Oswald Conrad Veidt German copies destroyed by the Nazis in 1933 and thought lost since then. A copy was found in the Ukraine in the late 70s and restored by the Stadtmuseum München. One of the earliest known sympathetic depictions of homosexuality in film.


Year Film Director Cast Notes Ref
1920 Der Wildtöter und Chingachgook Arthur Wellin Bela Lugosi Recovered in the 1990s.
1920 Genuine Robert Wiene Complete copy was discovered in the Berlin film archive.
1920 If I Were King J. Gordon Edwards Print is held by the Library of Congress
1920 Algol Emil Jannings
1920 In the Days of St. Patrick Norman Whitten
1920 Within Our Gates Oscar Micheaux Found in Spain, translated as La Negra.
1920 Helen of Four Gates Cecil Hepworth Alma Taylor
James Carew
Found in a film vault in Quebec, Canada in 2008. [15]
1921 The Blue Fox Duke Worne
1921 The Conquest of Canaan Roy William Neill Thomas Meighan, Doris Kenyon Found in Russian state archives. Digital copy turned over to the Library of Congress in 2010. [13]
1921 The Devil Ferenc Molnar George Arliss Was also made in 1918 in Hungary. American release is currently under restoration and schedule for re-release in 2011
1921 Der Tanz auf dem Vulkan Richard Eichberg Bela Lugosi Found in a film archive in the 1990s, albeit in its American release version.
1921 Hard Luck Edward F. Cline
Buster Keaton
Buster Keaton Long considered Keaton's major lost film until partially reconstructed in 1987. The climactic final scene was later recovered in a Russian archive.
1921 Molly O' F. Richard Jones Mabel Normand
1922 Kick In George Fitzmaurice Betty Compson
Bert Lytell
Found in Russian state archives. Digital copy turned over to the Library of Congress in 2010. [13]
1922 Sherlock Holmes Albert ParkerJohn BarrymoreFilm was restored over a thirty year period from the original camera negatives at the George Eastman House.
1922 Beyond the Rocks Sam Wood Gloria Swanson, Rudolph Valentino Donated by collector Joop Van Liempd (1913–2002) to Nederlands Filmmuseum and restored by them in 2005. [16]
1922 Little Red Riding Hood One of the first theatrical animated cartoons from Walt Disney. Found in a London film library in 1998 and restored the same year.
1922 Phantom F.W. Murnau
1922 The Young Rajah Phil Rosen Rudolph Valentino
1923 The Call of the Canyon Victor Fleming Richard Dix Found in Russian state archives. Digital copy turned over to the Library of Congress in 2010. [13]
1923 Canyon of the Fools Val Paul Found in Russian state archives. Digital copy turned over to the Library of Congress in 2010. [13]
1923 Circus Days Edward F. Cline Jackie Coogan Found in Russian state archives. Digital copy turned over to the Library of Congress in 2010. [13]
1923 Souls for Sale Rupert Hughes Eleanor Boardman Rediscovered and restored in 2006 by Turner Classic Movies and MGM
1923 The Eternal Struggle Reginald Barker Renée Adorée Found in Russian state archives. Digital copy turned over to the Library of Congress in 2010. [13]
1923 Maytime Louis J. Gasnier Ethel Shannon, Harrison Ford Found in the New Zealand Film Archive in 2009; undergoing restoration [7]
1923 The White Shadow Graham Cutts Betty Compson
Clive Brook
Henry Victor
A.B. Imeson
Found in the New Zealand Film Archive in August 2011 [17]
1924 $20 A Week Harmon F. Weight
1924 The Arab Rex Ingram Ramon Novarro, Alice Terry Found in Russian state archives. Digital copy turned over to the Library of Congress in 2010. [13]
1924 Venus of the South Seas Annette Kellerman Restored by Library of Congress in 2004. Last reel of 55-minute film is in Prizmacolor
1924 The Breaking Point Herbert Brenon
1924 Empty Hearts Alfred Santell John Bowers, Clara Bow
1924 Pied Piper Malone Alfred E. Green Thomas Meighan, Lois Wilson Discovered in a Russian film archive by historians Mark Tiedje and John Coles. It was screened in 2007 in Georgetown, South Carolina, where it was filmed.
1925 Clash of the Wolves Noel M. Smith Rin Tin Tin, Charles Farrell, June Marlowe, Heinie Conklin A 35mm projection print was uncovered in South Africa and repatriated to the United States. It underwent restoration and preservation in 2003.
1925 Keep Smiling Albert Austin, Gilbert Pratt Monty Banks Found in Russian state archives. Digital copy turned over to the Library of Congress in 2010. [13]
1925 The Lost World Harry Hoyt Bessie Love, Lewis Stone, Wallace Beery, Lloyd Hughes Only 65 minutes abridged version existed until 1992, when Jan-Christopher Horak, formerly of George Eastman House, located a nearly full-length print at the Filmovy Archiv (Prague, Czech republic).
1926 Bardelys the Magnificent King Vidor John Gilbert Restored in 2008 from a nearly-complete print discovered in France in 1998. [18]
1926 The Bat Roland West Tullio Carminatti
1926 The Boob William Wellman Joan Crawford, George K. Arthur
1926 Camille Fred Niblo Norma Talmadge
1926 The Exquisite Sinner Josef von Sternberg Conrad Nagel, Renee Adoree, George K. Arthur, Myrna Loy
1926 The Flaming Frontier Edward Sedgwick Hoot Gibson, Dustin Farnum
1926 Mare Nostrum Rex Ingram Antonio Moreno, Alice Terry
1926 You Never Know Women William Wellman Florence Vidor, Lowell Sherman, Clive Brook, El Brendel Never really a lost film, a copy has resided at the Library of Congress since the 1970s,
1926 A Page of Madness Teinosuke Kinugasa Found by the director in his garden shed in 1970; he had buried it during World War II and forgotten it.
1927 Duck Soup Fred Guiol Laurel & Hardy Thought lost until a copy surfaced in 1974.
1927 The Magic Flame Henry King Ronald Colman, Vilma Banky
1927 Napoléon Abel Gance Never totally lost, but existing prints were once only half as long as the current restoration.
1927 The Ridin' Rowdy Richard Thorpe
1927 The Rough Riders Victor Fleming Charles Farrell, Mary Astor, Noah Beery, George Bancroft
1927 The Senorita Alfred E. Green Bebe Daniels
1927 Sorrell and Son Herbert Brenon H.B. Warner, Anna Q. Nilsson, Carmel Myers, Nils Asther, Louis Wolheim, Mary Nolan
1927 Tarzan and the Golden Lion J. P. McGowan James Pierce Thought lost until a print was discovered in the closet of a French asylum in the 1990s.
1927 Upstream John Ford Discovered in New Zealand in 2010 among 75 silent films being returned to the US, many of which were thought lost. [19]
1927 Metropolis Fritz Lang Alfred Abel, Brigitte Helm The full 153-minute version was discovered in an Argentinan film museum in 2008. [20]
1927 Wings William A. Wellman Clara Bow, Charles 'Buddy' Rogers, Richard Arlen, Gary Cooper Found in the Cinémathèque Française film archive in Paris.
1928 The Constant Nymph Adrian Brunel Ivor Novello, Benita Hume
1928 Tillie's Punctured Romance A. Edward Sutherland W. C. Fields
1928 The Passion of Joan of Arc Carl Theodor Dreyer Although inferior prints existed, a nearly-pristine print was found in the janitor's closet of a Norwegian mental asylum.
1928 The Racket Lewis Milestone Thomas Meighan, Marie Prevost, Louis Wolheim Produced by Howard Hughes, and discovered following his death in his private collection.
1928 The Spanking Age Robert F. McGowan An Our Gang film thought to be lost, but rediscovered in 1990. [21]
1928 Two Arabian Knights Lewis Milestone Produced by Howard Hughes, and long thought lost until a print was found in his vault after his death.
1928 The Mating Call James Cruze Produced by Howard Hughes, and long thought lost until a print was found in his vault after his death. [22]
1929 Drag Frank Lloyd
1929 The Letter Jean de Limur Jeanne Eagels, O. P. Heggie, Reginald Owen, Herbert Marshall
1929 Why Be Good? William Seiter
1929 Wonder of Women Clarence Brown

Sound eraEdit


Year Film Director Cast Notes Ref
1930 The Bat Whispers Roland West One of the first films shot in widescreen. A complete print was discovered and restored in the late 1990s.
1930 Mamba Albert S. Rogell Jean Hersholt
Eleanor Boardman
Ralph Forbes
Footage from the final reel (stored at the UCLA Film and Television Archive) and all the Vitaphone soundtrack discs for this film were originally thought to be the only elements from the film to survive. A complete print of the film, running nine reels, and four soundtrack discs were discovered in Australia in 2009.
1930 Wara Wara Jose Maria Velasco Maidana The only known surviving Bolivian film of the silent era. Discovered in a La Paz basement in 1989, it required over a decade of restoration and was not released until 2010. [23]
1930 Limite Mário Peixoto Experimental silent feature made in Brazil. The restored complete version had its U.S. premiere in Brooklyn, New York in November 2010. [24]
1931 Love and Duty Bu Wancang Ruan Lingyu Silent film made in China, and rediscovered in Uruguay in the 1990s [25]
1931 The Stolen Jools William C. McGann All-star cast Made for a charity, film was discovered in the UK under its alternate title The Slippery Pearls
1931 The Smiling Lieutenant Ernst Lubitsch Rediscovered in Denmark in the 1980s. [26]
1931 Dick & Doof - Spuk um Mitternacht James Parrott Stan Laurel, Oliver Hardy German version (spoken by Laurel and Hardy) of Laurel & Hardy's Berth Marks/The Laurel-Hardy Murder Case, found 2004 in Moscow's film archive. [27]
1932 Doctor X Michael Curtiz Lee Tracy
Fay Wray
Technicolor version found in personal vault of Jack L. Warner.
1932 The Most Dangerous Game Irving Pichel
Ernest B. Schoedsack
Fay Wray A horror movie filmed on the same set as King Kong.
1932 The Old Dark House James Whale Boris Karloff
Melvyn Douglas
Gloria Stuart
Thought lost for decades, filmmaker Curtis Harrington discovered a print in the Universal Studios vault, which was restored by Eastman House. [28]
1932 Rynox Michael Powell Stuart Rome
John Longden
Found in the vaults of Pinewood Studios in 1990.
1933 Berkeley Square Frank Lloyd Leslie Howard
Heather Angel
Valerie Taylor
Rediscovered in the 1970s. [29]
1933 The Ghoul T. Hayes Hunter Boris Karloff, Ernest Thesiger A damaged, incomplete print was found in Czechoslovakia in the 1970s, and was thought to be the only surviving copy until a nearly-pristine one was found in the archives of the British Film Institute.
1933 Mystery of the Wax Museum Michael Curtiz Lionel Atwill, Fay Wray Technicolor version found in personal vault of Jack L. Warner. [30]
1933 Der Sieg des Glaubens Leni Riefenstahl Adolf Hitler This 64-minute documentary was ordered destroyed by Hitler for showing Nazi party member Ernst Röhm, who had been murdered on Hitler's orders. A copy was found in Britain in the 1990s.
1934 Of Human Bondage John Cromwell Bette Davis The negative was discovered to have been destroyed in 1964 when actress Kim Novak requested a print. A copy was recovered several years later.
1933 Ojo Okichi (Miss Okichi) Kenji Mizoguchi Isuz Yamada This film did not actually appear in official filmographies of Mizoguchi until a print was discovered in the vaults of Shochiku studios in 2008.
1935 Tag der Freiheit: Unsere Wehrmacht Leni Riefenstahl Adolf Hitler, Hermann Göring, Rudolf Hess, Heinrich Himmler Thought to have been lost following World War II, an incomplete print running 28 minutes was discovered in the 1970s.
1936 Border Vengeance Ray Heinz Reb Russell, Mary Jane Carey, Kenneth MacDonald Formerly listed on the Internet Movie Database as a lost film, a copy was made available as a free download circa 2004 as part of the collection of the Internet Archive.
1937 Slaves in Bondage Elmer Clifton Lona Andre, Donald Reed, Wheeler Oakman, Florence Dudley Long listed on the Internet Movie Database as a lost film, it resurfaced on DVD in the mid-2000s.
1939 Le Jour Se Leve Marcel Carné Jean Gabin, Jules Berry & Arletty When RKO acquired the distribution rights to Le Jour se lève in preparation for remaking it as The Long Night, they also sought to buy up and destroy all available prints of the original film. For a time, it was thought that the French film had been lost completely, but copies re-appeared in the 1950s and its classic status was re-established.
1939 Smith Michael Powell Ralph Richardson & Flora Robson A short film made in 1939 to promote an ex-servicemen's charity. It got caught up in the start of WWII and wasn't shown publicly. It wasn't even mentioned by Powell in his autobiography. A copy was found[31] in 2003 and it had its first public screening in the UK in 2004. 65 years after it was completed.
1939 Tevya Maurice Schwartz Maurice Schwartz
Julius Adler
Long thought lost, a print was discovered and restored in 1978.


Year Film Director Cast Notes Ref
1940 Confucius Fei Mu A print was anonymously donated to the Hong Kong Film Archive in 2001. [32]
1940 Kampf um Norwegen - Feldzug 1940 Martin Rikli
Werner Buhre
Found in Norway in 2005
1941 Kukan Rey Scott An extant print of this Academy Award-winning documentary was located by Hawaiian filmmaker Robin Lung.
1945 Momotaro's Divine Sea Warriors Mitsuyo Seo Japan's first feature animated film. Presumed to have been confiscated and burnt by the American occupation, but a negative was found in Shochiku's vault in 1984


Year Film Director Cast Notes Ref
1957 Shadows John Cassavetes Cassavetes showed a first version of his film only a handful of times, then scrapped it and re-shot the movie entirely. Found at a sale of items lost on the New York subway, and tracked down by cinema historian Ray Carney.


Year Film Director Cast Notes Ref
1965 The Noble Experiment Tom Graeff Tom Graeff Surviving print found by Elle Schneider in Los Angeles.
1966 Incubus Leslie Stevens William Shatner Surviving print found at Cinémathèque Française with French subtitles.


Year Film Director Cast Notes Ref
1971 Bun-Rye's Story Yu Hyun-mok [33]
1971 Necromania Edward D. Wood, Jr. Believed lost for years until an edited version resurfaced at a yard sale in 1992, followed by a complete unedited print in 2001.
1971 The Young Marrieds Edward D. Wood, Jr. Believed lost for years until rediscovered in Canada. [34]
1972 Marjoe Howard Smith
Sarah Kernochan
Marjoe Gortner Although released on VHS, the film had long been out of print and had deteriorated. In 2002 the negative and other elements were found in a vault in New York City.
1972 Born to Boogie Ringo Starr Marc Bolan Elton John Although released on VHS, the original print remained in storage and was presumed lost. The film was rediscovered and subsequently remastered for DVD release in 2005.
1974 Deranged Jeff Gillen
Alan Ormsby
Roberts Blossom Disappeared after its release in 1974, and was later rediscovered in Florida.
1978 Showdown at the Cotton Mill Chi Ping Chang
Peng Chang
San Lin Chen
Ma Wu Discovered in a Taiwanese film vault.

See alsoEdit


  1. Pringle, Glen. "The Preservation and Restoration of Silent Films". Retrieved 2007-05-09. 
  2. "Silent Era: Défense d’afficher". Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  3. "FilmBuffOnline: Edison's Frankenstein". Retrieved 2008-06-21. 
  4. "Silent Era: Richard III". Retrieved 2008-09-27. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 "New Zealand Project Films: Highlights". Retrieved 2010-06-06. 
  6. "Salomy Jane (1914) at Internet Movie Database". Retrieved 2008-09-29. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Dave Kehr (June 6, 2010). "Long-Lost Silent Films Return to America". The New York Times. 
  8. "The Girl Stage Driver". Retrieved April 21, 2011. 
  9. Brunsting, Joshua (June 8, 2010). "Charlie Chaplin Film Found At An Antique Sale, Once Thought Lost". The Criterion Cast. Retrieved June 9, 2010. 
  10. "Silent Era: The Stain". silentera. Retrieved 2008-06-28. 
  11. "Silent Era: East Lynne". Retrieved 2008-06-26. 
  12. "Silent Era: Hell Bent". Retrieved 2008-06-20. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 13.8 13.9 "'Lost' silent movies found in Russia, returned to U.S.". 2010-10-21. Retrieved 2010-10-22. 
  14. "Silent Era: The Wicked Darling". Retrieved 2008-06-26. 
  15. The Devil The Halifax Courier, 9/24/08
  16. "Progressive Silent Film List: Beyond the Rocks (1922) Recovered". Silent Era. Retrieved 2009-07-05. 
  17. "Rare Alfred Hitchcock film footage uncovered". BBC News. 2011-08-03. Retrieved 2011-09-11. 
  18. "Progressive Silent Film List: Bardelys the Magnificent". Silent Era. Retrieved 2009-06-04. 
  19. Pilkington, Ed (2010-06-07). "Lost John Ford movie unearthed in New Zealand". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2010-06-06. 
  20. The Local - Lost scenes of Metropolis discovered in Argentina
  21. "New York Times: The Spanking Age". NY Times. Retrieved 2008-09-14. 
  22. "Silent Era: The Mating Call". Retrieved 2011-09-24. 
  23. "BBC: Bolivia's struggle to preserve its film heritage". BBC. 2010-10-29. Retrieved 2010-10-30. 
  24. Larry, Rohter (9 November 2010). "Brazil’s Best, Restored and Ready for a 21st-Century Audience". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 November 2010. 
  25. Thomas Kampen (2004-06-30). "Film "Love and Duty"". Institute of Chinese Studies, University of Heidelberg. Retrieved 2007-04-09. 
  26. The New York Times, February 12, 2008.
  28. Del Valle, David (2008-08-07). "Curtis Harrington on James Whale". Films in Review. 
  29. Berkeley Square Movie Review (1933) from Channel 4 Film
  30. "Showcase: Mystery of the Wax Museum". 
  31. A Film Called Smith
  32. Bordwell, David & Thompson, Kristen (2009-04-15). "Confucius reborn". Retrieved 2009-07-23. 
  33. Lee Hyo-won. "Old Films Return With Foreign Dubbing". The Korea Times, 18 May 2009. Retrieved on 4 July 2009.
  34. "Biography of Ed Wood Jr.". Retrieved 2009-03-13. 

External linksEdit

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